Solstice occurs twice a year & mdash; summer and winter. These days, the sun either sinks to a minimum distance above the horizon, or moves away & mdash; to the maximum. It is then that the lowest position of the Sun above the horizon can be observed.
What is the winter solstice? & Nbsp;
The solstice occurs twice a year & mdash; summer and winter. These days, the sun either sinks to a minimum distance above the horizon, or moves away & mdash; to the maximum. In another way, this day is called the entry of the Sun into the sign of Capricorn.
On December 21, 2021, the Sun will drop to & nbsp; minimum height above the horizon. That is why today in the northern hemisphere will be the longest night and the shortest day of the year. & Nbsp;
What happens to the Sun on this day?
The Sun, moving in its orbit, will move as far as possible from the celestial equator towards the south pole of the world. So, in the northern hemisphere of the Earth an astronomical winter will come, and in the southern & mdash; summer. Within a few days, the Sun will “ freeze '' at the same height. That is why this day got its name. And then the day will begin to lengthen a little, and the night will wane. & Nbsp;
According to astronomers, at the latitude of the Moscow region today, December 21, the height of the Sun at noon will be 11 degrees. & Nbsp;
On this day, the Sun rises in the southeast and sets in the southwest, describing the shortest arc in the firmament. According to the Moscow Planetarium, in the capital today the Sun will rise above the horizon at 8:58 Moscow time and set at 15:58 Moscow time, the daylight hours will be exactly 7 hours, which is 10.5 hours less than on the summer solstice. On June 21, daylight hours in Moscow lasts 17 hours 33 minutes. By the way, as early as January 1, 2022, daylight hours will increase by seven minutes.
On these winter days beyond the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees north latitude), the polar night sets in, which does not necessarily mean complete darkness throughout the day … Its main feature is that the Sun does not rise above the horizon. & Nbsp;
“ For example, the polar night at the latitude of Murmansk lasts 40 days & mdash; from December 2 to January 10. Its peak falls on December 21-22. At the North Pole of the Earth, not only the Sun is not visible, but also there is no twilight. A completely different picture in the area of the South Pole of the Earth & mdash; in Antarctica at this time, the day lasts around the clock & raquo ;, & mdash; explains the official website of the Moscow Planetarium.
How was the Winter Solstice celebrated in Russia?
In Russia, in the 16th century, a special ceremony was held on Solstice Day. The bell ringer of the Kremlin, who was responsible for the chimes, was sent to the tsar to bow. He informed the royal court that the sun had turned for summer, which means: the day is increasing, and the night is decreasing. From there, probably, the proverb went: “ The sun '' for summer, winter & mdash; in the cold. ''
On this day, the ancient Slavs gave each other gifts. Some of them celebrated the pagan New Year on the solstice day, which they associated with the deity Kolyada. Children carolled, danced in circles, adults lit a fire and jumped over it, competing in strength. The whole celebration was decorated with one of the main attributes of the celebration, a round pie resembling the shape of the sun & nbsp; & mdash; better known as a loaf. Moreover, the day had to be spent as merrily and richer as possible, since on this holiday it was determined what the harvest would be. An additional guideline was also the presence of frost: if there was a lot of it, then this is a good sign. & Nbsp;
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https: //www. planetarium-moscow.ru/about/news/den-zimnego-solntsestoyaniya-21dekabrya2021/